Area codes were not changed. Faroe Islands (+298) and Greenland (+299) are in the northern Atlantic, between North America and Europe. Here you will find the international dialing codes you need to place calls to and from virtually anywhere in the world. Find your dialing code in Nepal: We've listed all the codes for Nepal here for your convenience, whether you're with Rebtel or just looking to make an international call. To get a SIM card take a copy of your passport and one photo to an Ncell office. The prefixes enable international direct dialing (IDD), and are also referred to as international subscriber dialing (ISD) codes. [phone number] = the phone number in Nepal you are dialling to. The New calling rates will be effective immediately when posted here; Our customized tariff plans to call from USA to India, UK, Canada, Australia, UAE, Saudi Arabia and other 150 global destinations lets you connect with family, friends and colleagues on the go. The 2-letter codes shown below are supplied by the ISO ( International Organization for Standardization). To make an international call to Nepal, you may also need a city or area code. Learn how to call Nepal, select the country calling code, enter the number you want to dial & we'll show you how to make calls in international format In order to view all our website features you need to enable Javascript. Dial-a-Code now works for all Pay Monthly and Pay As You Go customers on O2, EE, Orange, T-Mobile and Three! Make fantastic savings on international calls direct from your mobile with Dial-a-Code. com provides detailed information for making international long distance telephone calls to Surat, Gujarat, India from any country in the world. The + initiates an international call, followed by the country code (here 977 for Nepal). Country Calling Codes was founded in 2000 as a free resource to find telephone area codes and is now used by millions of users. Local calling (within the same area code) Dial the entire phone number for all locations in the country. Nepal reverse lookup of phone numbers! Free Search of calling codes +977 mobile numbers, how to call Nepal, area codes and local time. The Nepal area code is one kind of code that help you make international phone call to Nepal. Give Vonage to your Family in. The latest Tweets from Amantel (@amantel). Indian Mobile numbers have 10 digits with AB-XYZ-OOOOO format where AB- the access code, XYZ- MSC Code and OOOOO is the subscriber number. Portland Dialing Codes. Toll Free 1-800-. Nepal Idol is here with its first season in Nepal with three exceptional prodigies as our judges. CallingSurat. F1 soft is nepal's popular software company, ISO. Nepal country code: 977. Dial *703 from your CDMA mobile Set. Philippines country code: +63. International Dialing Codes for Long Distance Calling. With an estimated population of 26. The new dialing procedure starts June 22 and paves the way for the addition of the 341 area code to the region served by the 510 code. International Call Bypass complain Registration (if National Tel. Dial-a-Code now works for all Pay Monthly and Pay As You Go customers on O2, EE, Orange, T-Mobile and Three! Make fantastic savings on international calls direct from your mobile with Dial-a-Code. International Country Code Search, Choose: Country you are calling from:. The capital of Nepal is Kathmandu. Making a single code per carrier, after each carrier had to have multiple codes. Country Code. Find everything you need to know to call internationally with Comfi! International calling codes, country codes, local phone numbers and even national currency and local time are all available for your convenience at Comfi. The Time Now is a reliable tool when traveling, calling or researching. TheCountryCodes. 394857 / 84. An international dialling prefix is a telephone dialling code used to dial out of a country when making an international call. 061 Area Code. Unlike using a landline, you need to dial the local area code when making a local call on a mobile. The International dialing code calculator will show how to dial to Nepal - Kathmandu from any location in the world, with local area codes, trunk prefixes and international country codes. Telstra discontinued its AMPS-800 analog network nationwide in 2002, having replaced it with a CDMA-800 network. Call India at premium quality, check out the incredibly low calling rates, pay less & talk more with a calling plan to India or top up mobiles fast & secure. Japan dial code information. Get a Full-Featured All-in-One Calling Plan Make domestic and international calls from your mobile, home, office, dormitory, or just about any phone in the world at cheap long distance rates. The international dialing code +6721 / 0116721 / 006721: Macquarie Island. Instructions for use: For international telephone calls, one has to start by dialing the Dialing code that usually begins with two leading zeros, then the national area code, however, generally without the leading zero and finally the number of the person you want to reach. Search Mobile Number in Nepal (+977). Taking this general format, you need to plug in the outbound international access code for your originating country and the local subscriber number in Kolkata. SAVE HUGE on your international and long distance calls with Raza's calling cards. List of Nepal telephone area codes for calling major cities/regions. , Biometric Login Service, The easier way to bank, now with biometric login, Open Account Online , You can simply submit the form online and open account with us. This thanks at www. How can i call to a mobile number in muscut from india through internet? Well how do know the call history of someones mobile number in india? Free call from india to nepal mobile. Local calling (within the same area code) Dial the entire phone number for all locations in the country. zone 5 is South/Latin America). What is the dialing code of Nepal? The Nepal dialing code is a code number which familiar with the name Nepal international dialing code. there are two option given to find out international Dialling code. Try now, your first call is free. Follow the country links below for dialing codes, phone number formats, and step-by-step dialing instructions for calling Nagpur, India from these selected countries. You can find calling code for any country here. (Eg: Calling from Mauritius to Saudi Arabia: 20 + 966 for Saudi Arabia and then your phone number in Saudi Arabia). dialing-codes-factpack; Merge into old-trunk-1. Amantel calling cards are one of the lowest call rate providers in the USA and Canada. Area Codes Search Notes. Instructions for use: For international telephone calls, one has to start by dialing the Dialing code that usually begins with two leading zeros, then the national area code, however, generally without the leading zero and finally the number of the person you want to reach. SN District Area Code Zone 1 Illam 027 Mechi 2 Jhapa 023 3 Panchthar 024 4 Taplejung 024 5 Bhojpur 029 Koshi 6 Dhankuta 026 7 Morang 021 8 Sunsari 025 9 Sankhuwa 029. Please find all the Nepal phone codes you could need below. International area code lists. The + initiates an international call, followed by the country code (here 977 for Nepal). The judges are Kali Prasad Baskota, Nhyoo Bajracharya and Indira Joshi. Area Codes, Area Code Finder, Area Code Look Up, Telephone Area Codes. You will also need to know the area code for the region of Japan you're trying to call, which can be anywhere from 1 to 5 digits. Tips for calling a cell phone in Nepal: To call a Nepali cell phone from a land line, simply follow the mobile country code dialing instructions above to place your call. You can call normally like how you call other Indian number. To call Nepal, proceed as follows: the exit code of the country where you are (IDD), then enter the telephone code of Nepal, and finally the phone number to call. The “+” sign stands for the international access code, which varies depending on the country you’re calling from. Country Country Code 1. or check out our sample international call for basic info on how to dial. Area & City Dialing Codes in South Africa. In case of local call (call just between areas not countries) you don't need to add IDD and international phone number. How to Call Nepal form USA and how to Call Nepal internationally using mobile and landline phone. Phone Number Reverse Lookup Tool. This page includes the following content: code method, envelope example and address format, the way of writing the postal code correctly, reference link for postcode inquiries. In United States use 011, In Europe use 00, Etc*) and satellite phone number: Calling from US to an Iridium phone: 011 8816 1234 5678. The geography of Nepal consists of nearly all types of climate within its small area of 147;181 sq km. The time is obtained by adding 5. Search for International Country Codes used for long distance calling. How to call a Nepal mobile phone: 00 - India exit code to dial first when calling international 977 - Nepal country code. If you want to know how to make calls from USA and Canada to Nepal, Find the complete process with country code and area code from Amantel. Free Calls to Nepal from PC or Mac. 011 is the international dialing code of US and 57 is the dialing code of Colombia. Referring to the table below, you will see that in France you need to remove the 0 and add the country code in front of the number to make this call. This is all the information we need. Learn how to call Nepal from the U. The country code for Brazil is 55. In contrast, Coimbatore mobile phones are self-contained 10-digits numbers and do not require a separate area code. org is your complete guide to call anywhere in the world. It provides accurate information on how to dial internationally from the USA, Canada and every other country in the world. Click on any country name for detailed dialing instructions, area codes, telephone books, etc. Use the same call sequence. Philippines country code: +63. Country Code. Nepal to india call code from ncell. The cities listed are not intended to be exhaustive. The New calling rates will be effective immediately when posted here; Our customized tariff plans to call from USA to India, UK, Canada, Australia, UAE, Saudi Arabia and other 150 global destinations lets you connect with family, friends and colleagues on the go. Country codes, exit codes and trunk prefixes. Truly Global Communications. To make an international phone call to Winnipeg, MB, the following dialing codes will be required. The judges are Kali Prasad Baskota, Nhyoo Bajracharya and Indira Joshi. Telephone calls to India. How can i call to a mobile number in muscut from india through internet? Well how do know the call history of someones mobile number in india? Free call from india to nepal mobile. The city dialing code is a prefix used before the local phone number and is indicating to what city you are about to dial. This page includes the following content: code method, envelope example and address format, the way of writing the postal code correctly, reference link for postcode inquiries. 0 Comments. Or use these pages to find other dialing code information: Dialing codes for selected countries; Lookup an international access code (aka IDD) Mumbai area codes. To call Nepal, proceed as follows: the exit code of the country where you are (IDD), then enter the telephone code of Nepal, and finally the phone number to call. The nearest number is dialing code +230 and this is the dialing code for the country of Mauritius. It should be used to call in Nepal when you be outside the country. An interactive World Map with International Country dialing codes of every country. CallingSurat. For calls from Nepal to Australia dial: 00 + 61 + area code + telephone number. For a smarter international dialing code, visit TollFreeForwarding. It is located mainly in the Himalayas, but also includes parts of the Indo-Gangetic Plain. They are almost universally written to include all 10-digits. We show you how to quickly and easily make an international call from the USA to anywhere in the world. Portland Dialing Codes. Your complete guide when calling to Nepal in Asia. Find list of telephone area codes for all the states of Nepal. Area codes and phone numbers might be somewhat confusing for the callers in the United States, Canada, and Europe, as the Russian dialing rules do not always follow the same pattern as in the West. ISO country codes define abbreviations for countries. Placing an international phone call to India can seem intimidating at first, but the process is fairly simple as long as you know your country's exit code, the access code for India, the area code your contact resides. The format of phone numbers are different from country to country and also depends on whether the called line is fixed or mobile. Mainly Land line phones (PSTN) use this STD codes which has different area code for different area. This is the online version of the United Nations publication "Standard Country or Area Codes for Statistical Use" originally published as Series M, No. We provide fast and accurate information on how to dial internationally from the USA, Canada and every other country in the world. This thanks at www. The dialing format is same for calling Nepal mobile or land line from Australia. Indian Mobile numbers have 10 digits with AB-XYZ-OOOOO format where AB- the access code, XYZ- MSC Code and OOOOO is the subscriber number. Country Codes, Phone Codes, Dialing Codes, Telephone Codes, ISO Country Codes CountryCode. Follow the country links below for dialing codes, phone number formats, and step-by-step dialing instructions for calling Nagpur, India from these selected countries. CountryCode. Use the same call sequence. Reliance Global Call offers long distance prepaid calling (Telephone, Cellphone) cards to call more than 150 countries worldwide. While calling Nepal from abroad, you need to dial the ISD code followed by the area code and finally the phone number. Depending on how you look at it, you might eliminate the zero (0) when placing a call. Which country has the dialing code +977? Here you will find out to which country the code is belonging to. To phone Nepal dial 00977 then the full national number minus any leading 0. For example, calling US number (617) 321 0000 by dialing: 00 1 617 321 0000. If the international number you wish to call starts with a 0 (zero), you must drop this digit when dialing the number. com provides detailed information for making international long distance telephone calls to Surat, Gujarat, India from any country in the world. To call Nepal, proceed as follows: the exit code of the country where you are (IDD), then enter the telephone code of Nepal, and finally the phone number to call. The currency of Nepal is the Nepalese Rupee (NPR). The toll free code in front of the Indian phone number acts as the area code, and then it is just a matter of applying the appropriate calling codes before dialing the rest of the phone. 977 = country code to call Nepal from United States. We are a globally distributed team, ready to help. The Nepal country dialing code is only used when calling Nepal from another country. Find your dialing code in Nepal: We’ve listed all the codes for Nepal here for your convenience, whether you’re with Rebtel or just looking to make an international call. Note: this format applies to dialing Mumbai landline phone numbers. The International dialing code calculator will show how to dial to Nepal – Kathmandu from any location in the world, with local area codes, trunk prefixes and international country codes. dialing-codes-factpack; Merge into old-trunk-1. This makes dialing US numbers a bit easier than in some countries. Give Vonage to your Family in. First five digits are allotted time to time by DoT to all mobile operators. The initial digit is considered to be a zone which usually relates to a general geographic region (e. For example, if you are in France and you want to call Nepal you must first enter France IDD code then Nepal dialing code. They are almost universally written to include all 10-digits. A free code from World Zone 2 seemed to be the next best choice. Call Nepal from India, dial 00 - 977 - Area Code - Land Phone Number 00 - 977 - 10 Digit Mobile Number, where 00 denotes the exit code on India to make any International call, 977 is the ISD code of Nepal, followed by the area code and landline number or dialing the 10 digit mobile number directly. Which country has 92 as dialing code? The country code 92 (92 area code) belongs to:. However, if you are dialing from a mobile phone (cell phone), you would have to dial just as if you are dialing from a different city, which would be 022 1234 5678. See our full country code list including international dialing codes from the US to every country in Europe, Africa, Asia and more. This makes dialing Canada phone numbers a bit easier than in some countries. Find ALL telephone prefixes needed. Find low monthly rates when you travel to another country. So if you want to dial the United Kingdom from France and the United States, you will need to know two different codes to put in front of the country dialling. Area Code Listing, by Number The cities listed with each area code are the major cities for that area code; this originated as the city in which the switch computer for that area code is located, but is no longer the case. First you have to dial the exit code of your country , then the country code and area code. The Nepal country dialing code is only used when calling Nepal from another country. The elevation of the country range from a low of 60 meters above sea level to the extreme heights of Mount Everest-8,850 meters. A postal code doesn’t imply the code you’ll dial out of your phone or cellular set or any telecommunication media. The population of Nepal is 29,890,686 (2012) and the nation has a density of 209 people per square kilometer. com provides detailed information for making international long distance telephone calls to Mumbai, India from any country in the world. When a country name appears in the table as a link, there will be additional information regarding city or area codes. You have searched for the country Nepal and the head quarters is Kathmandu , the dialing or calling or country code for the same is 977. Next dial 977, the country code for Nepal. The 2-letter codes shown below are supplied by the ISO ( International Organization for Standardization). For example: To dial a number in the United Kingdom, dial the internal area code (01296). Nepal reverse lookup of phone numbers! Free Search of calling codes +977 mobile numbers, how to call Nepal, area codes and local time. Fixed phone numbers in Nepal are comprised of a single country code (+977), a 1-2 digit area code, and a 60-70 digit line code. More on int'l phone numbers >>>>>. Get other informations about Nepal like neighbouring countries, Nepal map, and reverse phone in Nepal. Dialling instructions for calling to and from anywhere in Nepal, including Kathmandu, Pokhara and Lalitpur. Follow the country links below for dialing codes, phone number formats, and step-by-step dialing instructions for calling Nagpur, India from these selected countries. New Jersey reverse lookup of phone numbers. CountryCode. Below, you'll find Nepalese Rupee rates and a currency converter. Where can I find more information about your international calling rates? International dialing per-minute rates vary by country and the International Calling Plan you selected. Roughly 75 percent of the country is covered by mountains. Canada phone numbers are highly standardized and are always 10-digits long. List of Nepal telephone area codes for calling major cities/regions. It's also called international access code, International Direct Dialling (IDD) code, exit code, international call prefix, etc. International telephone dialing code or time zone for any country or city. The international dialing code +6721 / 0116721 / 006721: Macquarie Island. This makes dialing Canada phone numbers a bit easier than in some countries. The changes do not require anyone to change their phone number. ISO country codes define abbreviations for countries. For a smarter international dialing code, visit TollFreeForwarding. Besides that, stationary and mobile shop even sell the SIM card. Though officially there is no trend of using these Postal or ZIP codes in Nepal , we require them at various purposes. Discover the most feature rich, India calling card service available. To know the telephone dialing code of any country just put the mouse over that country and it will be displayed. National Numbering Plans. 1 Direct dial. 50 per minute (inclusive of taxes). Calling within Nepal (domestic dialing) There is no trunk prefix used when calling within Nepal. Dialing format inside Egypt is 01X XXXX XXXX, International format is +20 1X XXXX XXXX. International Dialing Codes from NobelCom - see all phone prefixes needed to call from one country to another. com's Kathmandu Office, the numbers are + 977 1 526-414 International access code (denoted by +), country code of Nepal (977), area code of Kathmandu (1) and then the local number (six digit for Kathmandu valley, but may be less than that for other cities. 99 paisa per minute and to all other networks at only Rs. 0 Comments. Reliance Global Call reserves the right to change the rates without any prior notice. The 2-letter codes shown below are supplied by the ISO ( International Organization for Standardization). The Time Now is a reliable tool when traveling, calling or researching. Area Codes, Area Code Finder, Area Code Look Up, Telephone Area Codes. The pack enables their customers to make international calls in 20 different countries at a local rate of Rs 2. If you're calling from Europe (and most other countries including the majority of those in Africa, Asia, and the Middle East), you'll use 00 instead. Current local time and geoinfo in Kathmandu, Nepal. March 01, 2013. For rate information, visit International Long Distance. may seem like a confusing process, but it's simple once you know the proper codes for international dialing. Country code: +977. This is a list of telephone dialling codes for Ireland. The cities listed with each area code are the major cities for that area code; this originated as the city in which the switch computer for that area code is located, but is no longer the case. Buy the top quality Clothing, Electronics, Mobile Phones & much more at best prices with awesome discounted deals at Daraz Nepal. International dialling codes This Country Calling Codes is a resource that help you find telephone area codes all over the world. First of all, thank you for taking the time to read my blog. NTC International Call Tariff using access code 1424. At, Amantel we provides premium quality calling cards (Not Physical) with best domestic and international call rates online, 24 hours a day & 7 days a week. Mainly Land line phones (PSTN) use this STD codes which has different area code for different area. Kathmandu (+977 1) subscriber numbers became 7 digits, while other areas became 6 digits. com provides detailed information for making international long distance telephone calls to Mumbai, India from any country in the world. This thanks at www. A South African postal code directory. We show you how to quickly and easily make an international call from the USA to anywhere in the world. Local calling (within the same area code) Dial the entire phone number for all locations in the country. When a country name appears in the table as a link, there will be additional information regarding city or area codes. The Nepal country dialing code is only used when calling Nepal from another country. NTC International Call Tariff using access code 1424. Number appear while receiving International Call) Dial 188 (follow the instruction), which is free. Kathmandu International Airport, also known as Tribhuvan Int Nepal. If you enjoy the high quality and low price of our Dial91 India Card, you can recharge your PIN manually or automatically for $10. How To Phone Nepal. com provides detailed information for making international long distance telephone calls to Surat, Gujarat, India from any country in the world. More on int'l phone numbers >>>>>. The capital of Nepal is Kathmandu. The 0 (zero) is a so called "trunk code" used for domestic calls within many countries. Correct local time in Kathmandu, Nepal timezone, official time change dates winter time 2019 daylight saving dates, DST, clock change, GMT/UTC difference. To make an international phone call to Baltimore, MD, the following dialing codes will be required. Country code: +977. Buy cheap international calling cards online & make international calls at unbelievably cheap/low rates. The Nepal area code is one kind of code that help you make international phone call to Nepal. 00 and up to $100. Follow links for additional information on any code - or to look up that code for other countries. Dialling instructions for calling to and from anywhere in Nepal, including Kathmandu, Pokhara and Lalitpur. Faroe Islands (+298) and Greenland (+299) are in the northern Atlantic, between North America and Europe. If you need to call Bhutan you can use one of our international phone cards to call Bhutan. Nepal international country codes & city calling code. More on int'l phone numbers >>>>>. CountryCode. National dialing codes when calling internationally. Even if Advanced Dialing Options are appropriately configured, if you don't have access to account codes and you deactivate your workgroup status, the Advanced Dialing Options dialog box doesn't appear. When a country name appears in the table as a link, there will be additional information regarding city or area codes. Next, dial 81, which is the country code for Japan. South Africa's area codes ALL begin with zero (0) and are usually 3 digits long followed by a 7-digit number. You can use the internet fax service in sending and receiving fax. Discover the most feature rich, India calling card service available. Or use these pages to find other dialing code information: Dialing codes for selected countries; Lookup an international access code (aka IDD) Mumbai area codes. 394857 / 84. Bangalore is located in south central India on the Mysore Plateau, about 900 meters (3,000 ft. Make cheap calls abroad to any mobile or landline. 4 10193 calling rate. More on int'l phone numbers >>>>>. According to the latest figures of Nepal Telecommunications Authority these are 6 telecom network operators in Nepal, they are NTC (Nepal Telecom), NCELL, Smart Cell (Smart Telecom), NSTPL, UTL, STM (CG Telecom). Country Country Code S. Country Dialing Code. How to find a Zip Code. Dial-a-Code now works for all Pay Monthly and Pay As You Go customers on O2, EE, Orange, T-Mobile and Three! Make fantastic savings on international calls direct from your mobile with Dial-a-Code. Topics covered include: Surat dialing steps. US phone numbers are highly standardized and are always 10-digits long. Merge lp:~mgorven/ibid/dialing-codes-factpack into lp:~ibid-core/ibid/old-trunk-1. Unlike using a landline, you need to dial the local area code when making a local call on a mobile. ke jaisa show hota hai. Though officially there is no trend of using these Postal or ZIP codes in Nepal , we require them at various purposes. 4 million, it is 48th largest country by population and 93rd largest country by area. Referring to the table below, you will see that in France you need to remove the 0 and add the country code in front of the number to make this call. Your complete guide when calling to Nepal in Asia. Search the world's information, including webpages, images, videos and more. Country Country Code S. ISO country codes define abbreviations for countries. From North America : 011-977-61-421123. To call Nepal, proceed as follows: the exit code of the country where you are (IDD), then enter the telephone code of Nepal, and finally the phone number to call. To find out the current time in Kathmandu, view the World Clock. Nepal to india call code from ncell. To call Nepal from Australia, dial: 0011 - 977 - Area Code - Land Phone Number 0011 - 977 - 10 Digit Mobile. March 01, 2013 0. Find your phone code in the Philippines: We’ve listed all the codes for Philippines here for your convenience, whether you’re with Rebtel or just looking to make an international call. Phone Number Reverse Lookup Tool. It's much appreciated! If you would like. Nepal Telecom NTC has different different types of call rate for international country which are define in below according to two category SAARC Country and Other Country so that you can find easily country which you needed. Access your account online through DMS Self-Care Portal Click here. United States phone numbers are highly standardized and are always 10-digits long. Fixed-line telephone users do not need to dial the dialling code when they are contacting someone else within their own area. Nepal international country codes & city calling code. With an estimated population of 26. SAVE HUGE on your international and long distance calls with Raza's calling cards. ) above sea level. On these pages, you will find country-specific dialing codes, phone number formats, and step-by-step dialing instructions for calling Chicago, IL from your country. 75 to the Greenwich Mean Time or GMT. … sending a fax. 977 = country code to call Nepal from United States. Search for International Country Codes used for long distance calling. To assist you in calling from United Kingdom to Nepal we have provided a table of area codes or city codes for Nepal as a reference. The country dialing code by telephone is 977. The 0 (zero) is a so called "trunk code" used for domestic calls within many countries. The print version of the standard was issued last in 1999 and previously in 1996 , 1982 , 1975 and 1970. And making the NSN 10 digits after it was 9. If a more comprehensive area code list is available, this will be indicated at the bottom of each page. ) above sea level. Nepal Police Official Websites, Nepal Police, Truth, Service, Security. Dial-a-Code now works for all Pay Monthly and Pay As You Go customers on O2, EE, Orange, T-Mobile and Three! Make fantastic savings on international calls direct from your mobile with Dial-a-Code. Area Codes Search Notes. Buy our international phone cards with confidence and call India, Pakistan, Nepal and other countries with complete peace of mind. Depending on how you look at it, you might eliminate the zero (0) when placing a call. By Ashley Luthern of the Journal Sentinel. International Calling: for example to dial Zagreb in Croatia from Portugal you would dial 00 1 385 1-274 5555555; 00 IDD for Portugal. Top up a mobile in Nepal fast & secure and enjoy exciting bonuses. Mainly Land line phones (PSTN) use this STD codes which has different area code for different area. A South African postal code directory. 99 paisa per minute and to all other networks at only Rs. CountryCode. Country Dialing Code for Philippines. Nepal (Nepali: नेपाल), officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal, is a landlocked country in South Asia. For dialing information on calling Chicago from specific countries, please follow the country links below. By convention, international telephone numbers are represented by prefixing the country code with a plus sign (+), which also indicates to the subscriber that the local international call prefix must first be dialed.